Differential expression of multidrug-resistance genes in Trichophyton rubrum
Treatment of dermatophytosis is generally a long and challenging process, deeply affected by drug resistance owing to efflux-mediated activity. These drug-pumping mechanisms involve overexpression of transporter proteins with the ability to extrude a wide variety of structurally and functionally unrelated compounds. The ATP-binding cassette transporter and the major facilitator are the two largest superfamilies of transporters, expressed ubiquitously in all living organisms. Here, we examined the transcription modulation of both families of transporter genes in the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum upon challenge with sub-lethal doses of undecanoic acid or acriflavine. Data derived from RNA sequencing revealed transporters functioning in specific patterns according to the stressing condition, suggesting that each drug recruits specific physiological pathways. Synergistic transport activity may be acting to overcome drug toxicity, demonstrating that multidrug resistance transporters cooperate to induce drug resistance and fungal survival in an unpredictable manner.